Debian OS – beginner’s guide to Linux!


There is no doubt that if you want to use Linux and you’re new you should do so with Ubuntu, where you will get the maximum support and help in your first few steps.

this article addresses the bare DebianOS which requires some work to get it up and normally involves plenty tweaking but leads to a more stable experience down the road.

Installation:

  1. Create EFI USB Flash Drive (I have a rare motherboard that only works with EFI (no switch)
    1. The best way to create a bootable USB hands-down is: https://rufus.akeo.ie/
    2. Create a GPT table with FAT32 Partition  <– that’s for EFI (UEFI)
    3. Pick the DebianOS ISO here: https://www.debian.org/CD/ (I’m using 8 (Jessie) for this article)
    4. Burn away!
  2. Boot into the USB (if you don’t know how to do that: check your motherboard company for Boot Menu instructions, you can set it in BIOS but remember to set the BIOS back to Boot-Drive first for speed+security)
  3. Pick the “Install x64 bit Graphical” and follow the instructions
  4. Pick your Space! If you want to co-install this I highly recommend having Linux setup on physically separate HDD. but the other way requires advanced skills
    1. Pick existing free space
    2. Use the “Guided partition” else you’ll have to create ext4 partition and swap partition (Linux gods will tell you SWAP partition should be the same size as your RAM)
    3. After the partitions are ready press “Next” and read carefully that it tells you what partitions it’s about to format, make sure the partitions it’s referring to are the ones you want

 Updates!

  1. Open Terminal
    1. type: “su” and enter password when prompted (elevates terminal to root (god mode)
    2. Enable Add-apt-repository:  (this is how you add PPA in debian)
      apt-get install software-properties-common

       

    3. Install graphics driver: (I’m using AMD RX 4xx series)
      1. this card requires you to update your Linux Kernel, do the following:

 

cd /tmp/

wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.9/linux-headers-4.9.0-040900_4.9.0-040900.201612111631_all.deb

wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.9/linux-headers-4.9.0-040900-generic_4.9.0-040900.201612111631_amd64.deb

wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.9/linux-image-4.9.0-040900-generic_4.9.0-040900.201612111631_amd64.deb

sudo dpkg -i *.deb
  1. Install AMDGPU OpenSource drivers (AKA Non-PRO) see why?.
    1. Open Synaptic, Search for “xserver-xorg-video-amdgpu” If unchecked -> mark for installation -> Apply marked changes.
  2. Improve your font! (Debian is not the easy path, it’s the hero’s path, you pick the changes you like, for me I love “Pretty”
    1. Create a file called .fonts.conf in your home directory, and put the following contents in it:
    2. <?xml version='1.0'?>
      <!DOCTYPE fontconfig SYSTEM 'fonts.dtd'>
      <fontconfig>
       <match target="font">
        <edit mode="assign" name="rgba">
         <const>rgb</const>
        </edit>
       </match>
       <match target="font">
        <edit mode="assign" name="hinting">
         <bool>true</bool>
        </edit>
       </match>
       <match target="font">
        <edit mode="assign" name="hintstyle">
         <const>hintslight</const>
        </edit>
       </match>
       <match target="font">
        <edit mode="assign" name="antialias">
         <bool>true</bool>
        </edit>
       </match>
        <match target="font">
          <edit mode="assign" name="lcdfilter">
            <const>lcddefault</const>
          </edit>
        </match>
      </fontconfig>
    3. Restart XORG (logout and log back in)

Reference: Linix for cynics article

TIPS:

  1. Things to know in your journey in terminal:
  2. Being ROOT: su (Ubuntu uses: sudo -i)
  3. Edit Sources: nano /etc/apt/sources.list
  4. Update packages: apt-get update
  5. Installing from repo:  apt-get install [package name] [optional pack2] [optional pack3], etc.
  6. Installing from .deb:  dpkg -i [package full path]
  7. fixing broken packages: dpkg –congfigure -a && apt-get update
  8. Adding PPA Repository: add-apt-repository [ppa URL]
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